Repels cats, dogs, squirrels, groundhogs, skunks, raccoons and chipmunks. Repels by scent and taste which irritates the animal when they come in contact with the sprayed area. It also helps keep animals from damaging ornamental/landscape planting and discourages squirrels from birdfeeders. Repels for up to 30 days. Active ingredients: 0.480 percent Oil of Black Pepper, 0.185 percent Piperine and 0.032 percent Capsaicin and related Capsaininoids. One 32 oz bottle covers up to 320 sq. ft.